Are You Fit for Snow?

I first came to Sugarbush as the Risk & Safety Manager back in 2013 and not long after my start, my then supervisor charged me with finding a program that could work towards reducing on snow injuries.  Shortly into my tenure, I came upon an article talking about a Canadian based program, Fit For Snow (FFS).  Founded by Dr. Delia Roberts, then a professor at Selkirk College in B.C. – FFS detailed a comprehensive fitness and nutrition program geared specifically for snowsports employees and enthusiasts.  FFS is designed to reduce the risk of injury by enhancing one’s personal performance by focusing on ways to stabilize blood sugar, find and maintain proper posture, develop a strong core, and stabilize major joints.  After reading that article in 2013, I soon reached out to Delia and a seven year partnership, now friendship, began that has flourished into an intrinsic part of our Sugarbush snowsports operations.

Delia and I started working together more closely in 2015 when I enrolled in her Integrated Worksite Health & Safety Certification Program at Selkirk College.  Held virtually, I was able to participate in this program with other colleagues from our industry.  This year of learning with like-minded colleagues, really helped me grow my personal knowledge of occupational safety and challenged me to start thinking of it from an integrative approach, one that embeds traditional safety with worksite health & wellness programs.  And as someone who has spent a career in the more traditional occupational (OSHA) based programs, this truly was innovative.

After completing my certification with Delia, it took us another two years before we were ready to bring the program in-house.  We started Fit for Snow in the 2017 – 2018 season and launched it in our three higher risk snowsports teams: lift operations, ski & ride, and patrol.  A program of this nature is based in changing culture, and anyone that has worked with trying to change culture will know – it works at glacial pace.  I was lucky that the key members of our leadership team, with then head of resort Win Smith being a firm proponent of healthy behaviors, bought into this program and gave us the necessary financial support, time, and personal backing to enable this program to slowly grow roots. 

I am proud to report that now starting our fourth season with FFS, the program has been highly successful.  I encourage you to read an article Delia and I co-wrote this summer on the success of this program in Ski Area Management Magazine.   And you can also check-out our highlights reel that was part of our submission process for last June’s National Ski Areas Association (NSAA) Employee Safety Program Contest.  We ended up being one of three finalists. 

A program of this nature is only as successful as the folks that help implement it.  I want to give a huge shout out to the program founder – Dr. Delia Roberts and her assistant, Stace Kleavely.  Our Health & Safety Coordinator, Amy Kretz.  Our SHARC Trainer, Melanie Simon.  Our Department Managers: John Parsons, Lift Ops Manager / Terry Barbour, Ski & Ride Director / Colin Cascadden, Patrol Director.  As well as the many Department Advocates.

I hope all of you snowsports enthusiasts are taking time to get your own bodies Fit for Snow and we encourage you to take some tips from this program. We look forward to seeing you on the hill soon.


The safety program that has helped resorts integrate health and wellness into injury prevention for the past decade continues to evolve and grow.

It all began with a research study during the 2010-11 winter season. The aim: to gather information on why ski patrollers, lift operators, and snowsport instructors were injured so frequently. The study led to the devel­opment of Fit for Snow, a training pro­gram that encourages employees to adopt health and performance behav­iors—improved diet, hydration, agility, and movement patterns—that reduce workplace injuries and the costs as­sociated with them.

Today, more than 25 North American winter sports operators have used Fit for Snow. All are benefiting from healthier staff and lower injury-liability costs. This is noteworthy, as overall injury rates and related costs in British Columbia, where the study began, and across North Amer­ica (Figures 1a and 1b) can be significant.

Fit for Snow, combined with having a health and safety committee and follow­ing regulations for safety gear, has been proven remarkably effective for keeping employee injuries in check.


The initial study during the 2010-11 win­ter season collected data on 75 patrollers, lift operators, and snowsport instructors at five resorts in Western Canada. They were monitored to evaluate physical workload, movement strategies, biochemical status, hydration levels, and diet. In addition, blood glucose, reaction time, and deci­sion-making (speed and accuracy) were recorded every two hours over the course of two work days at each resort.

Injury records included time of day and nutritional status at the time of the injury, and were compared to five years of historical data, as well as to a control group of four matched resorts with sim­ilar skier visits, terrain, and conditions during the same season.

The program: diet, hydration, agility, fitness. The study findings were used to create discipline-specific training pro­grams, with four main areas of focus: sta­bilizing blood sugar (diet), maintaining adequate hydration, regular use of joint proprioceptive pattern resetting (exer­cises to improve agility and movement patterns), and general fatigue mitigation. Step-by-step practical strategies were provided within the context of the exist­ing resort cultures and directed toward achieving personal goals.

The program was delivered to a sub­set of employees at the five test resorts during 2011-12 pre-season training, along with on-snow workshops mid-sea­son, and injuries were monitored and compared with both historical data and the four control resorts.

The results: Injury rates for the sea­son were 65 percent lower than the five-year historical average. By comparison, the four control resorts experienced an average increase in injury rate of 33 per­cent over the same season. The study showed that by addressing some of the specific challenges faced by ski resort employees, health and wellness could be integrated effectively with injury pre­vention, and delivered in a culturally appropriate manner.

Now, 10 years after its inception, the program has evolved and grown, thanks to ongoing data collection and broader implementation at resorts.

BY DELIA ROBERTS, PhD, FACSM AND AMBER BROADAWAY, VP Guest Services and Safety, Sugarbush Resort

Figure 1a: Workers’ Comp in Canada

Base workers’ compensation injury insurance rate, injury rate, and claim costs for employees working at snowsport resorts in British Columbia, Canada.

Base Rate – Cost of injuries in classification unit 761038 Ski Hill in British Columbia, assessed per $100 total payroll.

Injury Rate – The number of time-loss claims per 100 people working all year whether on a part-time or full-time basis.

Claim Cost (millions) – Healthcare, rehabilitation, and short-term disability benefits paid in 2019, as well as long-term disability and survivor reserves set up in 2019.58 / ski area management /


Diet and blood sugar levels play a large role in wellness. An analysis of three years of data at six resorts in Colorado, New Mexico, and Vermont indicated that 70 percent of both employee and guest injuries were associated with fluctuat­ing blood sugar levels, and that reduc­ing these fluctuations through dietary modification had a significant impact in reducing injuries. Research with other industries has revealed a similar relation­ship between fluctuating blood sugar levels and impaired reaction time and decision-making.

Thus, as we continue to monitor and refine Fit for Snow, we are better able to understand the key elements necessary for successful implementation of the program.


Fit for Snow has several attributes that support implementation at any resort operation, including:

Relevance: Fit for Snow is based on data from winter resorts. That provides a clear focus for its wellness strategies. It’s endorsed by several industry groups based on their experience with the pro­gram: the Association of Canadian Moun­tain Guides, the Canadian Ski Patrol, and the Professional Ski Instructors of Amer­ica. Plus, the founder (Dr. Roberts) and facilitators are accomplished snowsports athletes themselves.

Quality: The program is evi­dence-based within the peer groups of the targeted audience, and it is reviewed and updated regularly.

Cultural specificity: The format and tools are designed for occupational snowsports athletes.


The program’s success at Sugarbush Resort, Vt., demonstrates its effectiveness. Sugarbush employs roughly 150-200 year-round staff, swelling to upwards of 1,000 seasonal staff at peak winter operation. The resort’s intimate yet decentralized management style allows opportunities for non-traditional programming. Plus, recently retired resort president Win Smith had a personal commitment to health and safety—he regularly nabbed 100 ski days per season. All that has creat­ed an environment in which Fit for Snow can grow and develop.

In just three years of using Fit for Snow, Sugarbush reduced its staff total and med­ical injuries by 50 percent, with zero lost time claims in the third season (Figure 2).

Implementation. All of the required tenets for a successful health and well­ness program were in place at Sugarbush:

Support from management at all lev­els: Upper management committed the financial and personnel resources to sup­port the program, and a comprehensive plan was put in place for training at each level of management, with key focus on supporting front-line field supervisors.

Repeat exposure: Fit for Snow has been an agenda item for management review on a weekly basis during the winter season. The resort also committed to following the program for at least four years.

Engaged management: Front-line field supervisors and managers were engaged, backed up with incentives to use and support the program, and have been held accountable for their use of the program.

Figure 1b: Workers’ Comp in the U.S.

Base workers’ compensation insurance rate and injury rate for employees at U.S. resorts.

* Base Rate – Average of the base rate/$100 of payroll for the ski area governing class code (9180) for Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, and Mon­tana—states with a good number of ski areas and base rates that are set by the National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI).

** BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) Injury Rate – Number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers.

Figure 2. Historical Injury Rates for Sugarbush Resort59 / September 2020

Adequate resources: Support for the program includes paid staff, supplies, and time allotted for in-house staff train­ing. Incentive rewards are provided, with dedicated administrative oversight.

Constant evaluation and refinement: Employees were given a strong voice. Advocates champion the program with the encouragement of management, which has stayed committed to reinvest­ing in program improvements.

Nutrition. As Fit for Snow was rolled out at Sugarbush, communication and support from management enabled staff to build on the resort’s existing wellness and safety culture.

Some changes were relatively sim­ple and low cost: distributing reusable water bottles; installing hydration sta­tions around the resort (which benefited guests as well); and ensuring all employ­ees resort-wide had reasonable access to drinking water. Posters encouraging hydration were designed and posted in employee work areas (Figure 3).

Other items—such as access to healthy, affordable food for staff—pre­sented greater logistical challenges, and led to a tiered, season-by-season approach.

Initially, Sugarbush organized staff events that incorporated healthy food with social gatherings, such as cook­ing classes and group potlucks. Locker room meeting treats like chips, donuts, and pizza were replaced with healthier choices, including oatmeal, seltzer water, chocolate milk, and fruits and veggies. Healthy snacks were handed out on busy Saturdays and holiday weekends, when the staff needed stable blood sugar the most. And eventually, food and bever­age began providing healthy, discounted grab-and-go items in the resort cafeterias.

Messaging. Weekly advice describ­ing how to incorporate healthy behav­iors is packaged according to the needs of the front-line field supervisors. A variety of platforms are used to deliver the mes­saging, depending on the location, tim­ing, and specific cultures of the various employee groups (patrol, instructors, lift ops). The materials include:

• copies of the program manuals;

• custom pamphlets;

• locally designed posters;

• program snapshots (index cards with 2-3 sentence safety/health and wellness messages);

• incorporating on-snow movement strategies into regular training exercises;

• warm-up and locker room exercises to develop proprioceptive strategies;

• blog posts and newsletter items;

• pre-season training videos;

• staff social events that include some education or training in the program; and

• exercise facilities/fitness classes.

Support and reinforcement. Fit for Snow health and wellness tenets are regularly blended into existing perfor­mance training activities. This is critical, because a one-time pre-season exposure to the program is not sufficient to make it part of the resort culture. This is espe­cially true early season, where time pressures, pre-season training overload, and in some cases language difficulties, increase the challenge of running effec­tive training sessions.

Advocates lead the way. To overcome these constraints, Sugarbush invest­ed significant time in training a small group of program advocates in the three departments—patrol, lift ops, and snow­sports school. These individuals act as liaisons and program champions. They help identify the needs of the staff in each respective department and gradual­ly have assumed an active role in incor­porating the various program resources with their peers. Many of the advocates have helped shape the program, too.

Advocates are supported by field supervisors, department heads, and two content experts (the resort’s fitness train­er and the health and safety coordinator). They also receive resort recognition and some compensation. This support was critical in nurturing the advocates into a more active role in the program.

In just three years, Fit for Snow has became part of the Sugarbush culture. It has helped forge a family of employees who are truly engaged in health, well­ness, and safety, on and off the moun­tain. This has led to impressive financial savings through a reduction in injuries and zero lost time incidents. But more importantly, the Sugarbush community sees Fit for Snow not as an imposed set of rules, but rather as a sustainable lifestyle.


Integrating safety with health and wellness can produce excellent results, both in lower injury liability costs and a healthier, higher-performing team of staff. Enhancing health and wellness and helping employees achieve their per­formance goals shifts the safety culture from extrinsic policing toward positive intrinsic change.

Programs like Fit for Snow, which address the unique challenges experi­enced by snowsport resort employees, have proven successful. And it takes a significant commitment from leadership to achieve a successful outcome.

Figure 3: Employee Hydration Poster